无论地点和时间段如何,语言都是每个社会中社会互动的核心。语言和社会互动具有互惠关系:语言塑造社会互动和社会互动塑造语言。社会语言学的基本前提是语言是变化的,不断变化的。结果,语言不统一或不变。相反,对于个人用户以及使用相同语言的发言者群体之内和之间,它是变化的和不一致的。社会语言学是研究语言与社会之间的联系以及人们在不同社交场合使用语言的方式。它提出了一个问题,“语言如何影响人类的社会性质,以及社会互动如何塑造语言?”它的深度和细节范围很广,从研究特定地区的方言到分析男女在某些情况下相互说话的方式。社会语言学家研究语言的一种方式是通过过时的书面记录。他们检查手写和印刷文件,以确定语言和社会过去的互动方式。这通常被称为历史社会语言学:研究社会变化与语言随时间的变化之间的关系。例如,历史社会语言学家在日期文献中研究了代词的用法和频率,并发现用词来代替你与16和17世纪英格兰的阶级结构的变化相关。人们调整他们与社交场合交谈的方式。例如,个人对孩子的说话方式与他们对大学教授的说话方式不同。这种社会情境变化有时被称为登记,不仅取决于参与者之间的场合和关系,还取决于参与者的地区,种族,社会经济状况,年龄和性别。研究人员和学者目前正在使用社会语言学来研究美国语言中一些有趣的问题:在北方发生了元音转换,其中元音的改变发生在某些单词中。例如,布法罗,克利夫兰,底特律和芝加哥的很多人现在都在宣传蝙蝠,就像打赌一样。谁在改变这些元音的发音,为什么要改变它们,为什么/它如何传播?白人中产阶级青少年使用非洲裔美国白话英语语法的哪些部分?例如,白人青少年可能通过说“她钱”或“他干扰”这些与非裔美国人有关的短语来赞美同伴的衣服。由于路易斯安那州南部卡真地区失去单语法语,会对路易斯安那州的语言产生什么影响?即使这些讲法语的人都不见了,法语的语言特征是否会持续下去?年轻一代使用什么俚语来表明他们与某些亚群的关系,并将自己与父母的一代区别开来?例如,在21世纪初,青少年描述他们喜欢的东西,如酷,金钱,紧身或甜蜜,但绝对不会膨胀,这是他们的父母在他们是青少年时会说的。社会语言学家也常常研究方言,这是一种语言的区域,社会或种族变异。例如,美国的主要语言是英语。然而,生活在南方的人,他们说话的方式和他们使用的词语与居住在西北地区的人相比往往会有所不同,即使它们都是同一种语言。根据您所在国家/地区的不同,有不同的英语方言。根据年龄,性别,社会经济状况或种族/民族,哪些词的发音不同?例如,非裔美国人经常以不同于白人的方式发音。同样,根据演讲者是在第二次世界大战之后还是之前出生,一些单词的发音也不同。哪些词汇单词因地区和时间而异,与某些单词相关的含义有何不同?例如,在路易斯安那州南部,某种早餐通常被称为丢失的面包,而在该国的其他地方,它被称为法国吐司。同样,哪些词随着时间的推移而改变?例如,Frock过去常常提到女人的衣服,而今天很少使用连衣裙。社会语言学家也研究了许多其他问题。例如,他们经常检查听众对语言变化,语言行为规范,语言标准化以及与语言有关的教育和政府政策的价值观。

新加坡国立大学社会学Assignment代写:社会语言学

Language is central to social interaction in every society, regardless of location and time period. Language and social interaction have a reciprocal relationship: language shapes social interactions and social interactions shape language. The basic premise of sociolinguistics is that language is variable and ever-changing. As a result, language is not uniform or constant. Rather, it is varied and inconsistent for both the individual user and within and among groups of speakers who use the same language. Sociolinguistics is the study of the connection between language and society and the way people use language in different social situations. It asks the question, “How does language affect the social nature of human beings, and how does social interaction shape language?” It ranges greatly in depth and detail, from the study of dialects across a given region to the analysis of the way men and women speak to each other in certain situations. One way that sociolinguists study language is through dated written records. They examine both hand-written and printed documents to identify how language and society have interacted in the past. This is often referred to as historical sociolinguistics: the study of the relationship between changes in society and changes in language over time. For example, historical sociolinguists have studied the use and frequency of the pronoun thou in dated documents and found that its replacement with the word you is correlated with changes in class structure in 16th and 17th century England. People adjust the way they talk to their social situation. An individual, for instance, will speak differently to a child than he or she will to their college professor. This socio-situational variation is sometimes called register and depends no only on the occasion and relationship between the participants, but also on the participants’ region, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age, and gender. Researchers and scholars are currently using sociolinguistics to examine some interesting questions about language in the United States: There is vowel shift occurring in the North, in which pattered alterations to vowels is occurring in certain words. For example, many people in Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, and Chicago are now pronouncing bat like bet and bet like but. Who is changing the pronunciation of these vowels, why are they changing it, and why/how is it spreading? What parts of African American Vernacular English grammar are being used by white middle-class teenagers? For example, white adolescents might compliment a peer’s clothes by saying, “she money” or “he be jamming,” phrases that are associated with African Americans. What will be the impact on language in Louisiana due to the loss of monolingual French speakers in the Cajun region of Southern Louisiana? Will the French features of language be sustained even when these French speakers are gone? What slang terms do younger generations use to show their affiliation with certain subgroups and to distinguish themselves from their parents’ generation? For example, in the early 2000s, teenagers described things that they enjoyed as cool, money, tight, or sweet, but definitely not swell, which is what their parents would have said when they were teenagers. Sociolinguists also commonly study dialect, which is the regional, social, or ethnic variation of a language. For example, the primary language in the United States is English. People who live in the South, however, often vary in the way they speak and the words they use compared to people who live in the Northwest, even though it is all the same language. There are different dialects of English, depending on what region of the country you are in. Which words are pronounced differently according to age, gender, socioeconomic status, or race/ethnicity? For instance, African Americans often pronounce certain words differently than whites. Likewise, some words are pronounced differently depending on whether the person speaking was born after World War II or before. Which vocabulary words vary by region and time, and what are the different meanings associated with certain words? For example, in Southern Louisiana, a certain breakfast dish is often called lost bread while in other parts of the country, it is called French toast. Similarly, which words have changed over time? Frock, for instance, used to refer to a woman’s dress, while today frock is rarely used. Sociolinguists study many other issues as well. For instance, they often examine the values that hearers place on variations in language, the regulation of linguistic behavior, language standardization, and educational and governmental policies concerning language.

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