实用程序是经济学家用产品,服务或劳动来衡量愉悦或快乐的方式,以及它与人们在购买或执行产品时做出的决策的关系。公用事业衡量消费商品或服务或工作带来的好处(或缺点),虽然效用不能直接衡量,但可以从人们做出的决策中推断出来。在经济学中,边际效用通常由函数描述,例如指数效用函数。在衡量某种商品,服务或劳动力的效用时,经济学使用预期或间接效用来表达消费或购买物品所带来的愉悦量。预期效用是指面临不确定性的代理人的效用,并通过考虑可能的状态和构建效用的加权平均来计算。这些权重由给定代理人估计的每个状态的概率确定。预期效用适用于使用商品或服务或工作的结果被视为对消费者构成风险的任何情况。从本质上讲,假设人类决策者可能并不总是选择较高的预期价值投资选择。例如,保证支付1美元或赌博支付100美元,奖励概率为80分之一的情况就是这种情况,否则什么也得不到。这导致预期值为1.25美元。根据预期的效用理论,一个人可能会如此厌恶风险,他们仍然会选择价值较低的保证,而不是赌博1.25美元的预期价值。为此,间接效用非常类似于总效用,通过使用价格,供应和可用性变量的函数计算。它创建了一条效用曲线来定义和绘制决定客户产品评估的潜意识和有意识因素。计算依赖于变量的函数,例如市场中货物的可用性(这是其最大点)与人的收入相对于货物价格的变化。虽然通常情况下,消费者会考虑他们在消费而不是价格方面的偏好。就微观经济学而言,间接效用函数是支出函数的倒数(当价格保持不变时),其中支出函数决定了一个人必须花费的最低金额才能从商品中获得任何数量的效用。在确定这两个功能之后,您可以确定商品或服务的边际效用,因为边际效用被定义为从消耗一个额外单位获得的效用。基本上,边际效用是经济学家确定消费者将购买多少产品的一种方式。将其应用于经济理论依赖于边际效用递减规律,该规律指出每个后续产品或消费品的单位价值都将减少。在实际应用中,这意味着一旦消费者使用单个单位的商品,例如一片披萨,下一个单元的效用就会降低。

美国芝加哥大学经济学Essay代写:经济效用

The utility is an economist’s way of measuring pleasure or happiness with a product, service, or labor and how it relates to the decisions that people make in purchasing or performing it. Utility measures the benefits (or drawbacks) from consuming a good or service or from work, and although utility is not directly measurable, it can be inferred from the decisions that people make. In economics, marginal utility is usually described by a function, such as the exponential utility function. In measuring the utility of a certain good, service, or labor, economics use either expected or indirect utility to express the amount of pleasure from consuming or purchasing an object. Expected utility refers to the utility of an agent facing uncertainty and is calculated by considering possible state and constructing a weighted average of utility. These weights are therein determined by the probability of each state given the agent’s estimate. Expected utility is applied in any situation where the outcome of using the good or service or working is deemed a risk for the consumer. Essentially, it is hypothesized that the human decider may not always choose the higher expected value investment option. Such is the case in the example of being guaranteed a $1 payment or gambling for a $100 payment with a probability of reward at 1 in 80, otherwise getting nothing. This results in an expected value of $1.25. According to the expected utility theory, a person may be so risk averse they will still choose the less valuable guarantee rather than gambling for the $1.25 expected value. For this purpose, the indirect utility is very much like a total utility, calculated via a function using variables of price, supply, and availability. It creates a utility curve to define and graph the subconscious and conscious factors that determine customer product valuation. The calculation relies on a function of variables like the availability of goods in the market (which is its maximum point) against a person’s income versus a change in the price of goods. Though usually, consumers think of their preferences in terms of consumption rather than price. In terms of microeconomics, the indirect utility function is the inverse of the expenditure function (when the price is kept constant), whereby the expenditure function determines the minimum amount of money a person must spend to receive any amount of utility from a good. After you determine both of these functions, you can then determine the marginal utility of a good or service because marginal utility is defined as the utility gained from consuming one additional unit. Basically, the marginal utility is a way for economists to determine how much of a product consumers will buy. Applying this to economic theory relies on the law of diminishing marginal utility which states that each subsequent unit of product or good consumed will diminish in value. In practical application, that would mean that once a consumer has used a single unit of a good, such as a slice of pizza, the next unit would have less utility.

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