科学思想的根本变化是什么?它们是如何产生的?通过基本思想的突变导致提出新问题,新问题被看到,满意解释的新标准取代旧问题,在启动变革方面发挥了什么作用?数学和实验仪器中新技术发明的作用是什么;通过纯数学的发展;通过改进测量;通过将思想,方法和信息从一个研究领域转移到另一个领域?在科学成就之前对科学方法和概念的描述和使用有何意义?在不同的科学中,解释的方法和概念有何不同?语言如何在改变科学背景下发生变化?哪些部分有机会和个人特质在发现中发挥作用?如何在一般观念和思想动机的背景下定位科学变革,以及在多大程度上科学信仰赋予理论他们说服力的能力? ……在动机和机遇的社会背景下,科学和技术变革如何定位?工业,商业,战争,医学和艺术,政府和私人投资,宗教,不同国家和社会制度的需求对整个社会的科学活动有何价值?科学,技术和医学面临的外部社会,经济和政治压力是什么?在现代社会中创造科学和技术进步所需的金钱和机会是什么? (Crombie,1963,p.10)

澳洲拉筹伯大学Essay代写:科学史与科学变革

What were the essential changes in scientific thought and how were they brought about? What was the part played in the initiation of change by mutations in fundamental ideas leading to new questions being asked, new problems being seen, new criteria of satisfactory explanation replacing the old? What was the part played by new technical inventions in mathematics and experimental apparatus; by developments in pure mathematics; by the refinements of measurement; by the transference of ideas, methods and information from one field of study to another? What significance can be given to the description and use of scientific methods and concepts in advance of scientific achievement? How have methods and concepts of explanation differed in different sciences? How has language changed in changing scientific contexts? What parts have chance and personal idiosyncrasy played in discovery? How have scientific changes been located in the context of general ideas and intellectual motives, and to what extent have extra-scientific beliefs given theories their power to convince? … How have scientific and technical changes been located in the social context of motives and opportunities? What value has been put on scientific activity by society at large, by the needs of industry, commerce, war, medicine and the arts, by governmental and private investment, by religion, by different states and social systems? To what external social, economic and political pressures have science, technology and medicine been exposed? Are money and opportunity all that is needed to create scientific and technical progress in modern society? (Crombie, 1963, p. 10)

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注