当学生需要提示以启动技能或活动时,会立即产生依赖性。通常技能是掌握的,但提示是学生期望的一部分,他们不会在没有成人提示的情况下发起并有时完成一项活动。这种情况经常发生是因为父母,治疗师,教师或教师助手都在口头提示厚厚而持续。 Rodney会坐下来等待Eversham小姐告诉他在他开始在他的文件夹中的文件之前开始。埃弗瑟姆小姐意识到罗德尼已经发展得很快依赖,依靠她给出口头提示让他完成他的文件夹。提示是特殊教育学生脚手架成功的一个重要部分,从小做起,致力于更复杂的学术,职能或职业技能。那些迅速依赖的孩子往往是那些课堂助手并不总是关注他们口头提示所有事情的人。换句话说,他们谈得太多了。很多时候,学生会在语言提示级别上陷入连续的提示,并要求教师口头指导他们,以便他们完成任务或技能。学生甚至可能被困在手掌上 – 有些学生甚至需要在使用剪刀或甚至尝试用书写工具书写之前,先拿起老师或助手并将其放在自己的手上。在上述每一个案例中,问题是未能达到儿童已经发展的独立程度并迅速淡出提示。如果你从手开始,一旦你可以放松或放松你的掌握,移动到一个新的水平,将你的手从学生的手移到他们的手腕,肘部,然后只需轻拍手背。对于其他类型的活动,特别是对于已经掌握了较大技能(例如穿衣)的组成部分的学生,可以从更高水平的提示开始。如果可能的话,避免口头提示很重要。视觉提示最好,例如学生完成活动的图片,一步一步。一旦你的学生明确掌握了组成部分,然后在口头提示旁边使用手势提示,然后退出或淡出,口头提示最终只留下手势提示,以独立结束。独立应始终是任何教育计划的目标,并且提示独立的移动形式始终是道德和积极主动的教师的目标。确保您提供的那种支持可以带来独立性。

澳大利亚查尔斯特大学教育学Essay代写:迅速依赖的危险

Prompt dependence comes when a student needs a prompt in order to initiate a skill or activity. Often the skill is mastered, but prompting is so much a part of the student’s expectations that they will not initiate and sometimes complete an activity without adult prompting. Often this happens because the parent, therapist, teacher or teachers aide lays on the verbal prompting thick and consistently. Rodney would sit and wait for Miss Eversham to tell him to start before he would begin the papers in his folder. Miss Eversham realized that Rodney had developed prompt dependency, relying on her giving verbal prompts for him to complete his folder. Prompting is an important part of scaffolding success with special education students, starting small and working toward more complex academic, functional or vocational skills. More often than not, children who become prompt dependent are those whose classroom aides are not always attentive to the fact that they give verbal prompts for everything. In other words, they talk too much. Too often, students get stuck on the continuum of prompts at the verbal prompt level and require the teacher to verbally direct them in order for them to complete the task or skill. Students can even be stuck at the hand over hand level — some students even need to take the teacher or aides hand and place it on their own hand before using scissors or even attempting to write with a writing utensil. In each of the cases above, the problem was the failure to attend to the level of independence the child has developed and promptly fade out the prompts. If you start with hand over hand, as soon as you can loosen or relax your grasp, move toward the next level, moving your hand from the student’s hand to their wrist, to their elbow and then simply tapping the back of the hand. For other kinds of activities, especially for students have mastered the component parts of a larger skill (such as dressing) it is possible to begin with a higher level of prompting. It is important to avoid verbal prompting if possible. Visual prompts are best, such as pictures of the student completing the activity, step by step. Once your student has clearly mastered the component parts, then employ gestural prompts alongside the verbal prompts, then withdraw or fade, the verbal prompts to finally leave only the gestural prompts, ending with independence. Independence should always be the goal of any educational program, and moving form prompting to independence is always the goal of an ethical and proactive teacher. Be sure you are providing the kind of support that leads to independence.

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