1932年,欧内斯特·劳伦斯和他的学生M·斯坦利·利文斯顿合作在加州大学伯克利分校建立了第一个回旋加速器。他们把大电磁铁放在一个圆圈里,然后想出一种方法把粒子射穿回旋加速器,使它们加速。这项工作为劳伦斯赢得了1939届诺贝尔物理学奖。在此之前,使用的主要粒子加速器是线性粒子加速器,简称Iinac。第一个直线加速器是1928在德国亚琛大学建造的。Linacs至今仍在使用,特别是在医学领域,并且作为更大更复杂的加速器的一部分。自从劳伦斯在回旋加速器上工作以来,这些测试装置就已经在世界各地建立起来了。加州大学伯克利分校为它的辐射实验室建造了几座核反应堆,第一座欧洲核反应堆在俄罗斯的列宁格勒镭研究所建成。另一个是在二战初期在海德堡建造的。回旋加速器比直线加速器有很大的改进。与直线加速器设计不同,直线加速器设计需要一系列磁铁和磁场来直线加速带电粒子,圆形设计的好处是带电粒子流将持续通过由磁铁产生的相同磁场。VER,每次都能获得一点能量。当粒子获得能量时,它们将围绕回旋加速器内部形成越来越大的环路,继续通过每个环路获得更多的能量。最终,环路会如此之大,以至于高能电子束会穿过窗户,此时它们会进入轰击室进行研究。本质上,它们与一个板块碰撞,并且散射的粒子围绕着腔室。回旋加速器是循环粒子加速器中的第一个,它为加速粒子的进一步研究提供了更有效的途径。今天,回旋加速器仍然用于医学研究的某些领域,其尺寸范围从桌面设计到建筑物尺寸及更大。另一种类型是同步加速器,设计于20世纪50年代,并更强大。最大的回旋加速器是TRIUMF 500MeV回旋加速器,它仍在加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚大学温哥华分校运行,日本瑞肯实验室的超导环形回旋加速器。它有19米宽。科学家用它们来研究粒子的性质,一种叫做凝聚态的物质(粒子相互粘附)。更现代的粒子加速器设计,比如大型强子对撞机上的那些设计,可以远远超过这个能级。这些所谓的“原子粉碎机”是为了加速粒子接近光速而建造的,因为物理学家正在寻找越来越小的物质碎片。希格斯玻色子的搜索是LHC在瑞士工作的一部分。纽约布鲁克海文国家实验室、伊利诺伊州费米实验室、日本KEKB等都有其他加速器。这些是回旋加速器的高度昂贵和复杂的版本,都致力于理解组成宇宙物质的粒子。

新加坡南洋理工大学Assignment代写:电磁加速器

In 1932, Ernest Lawrence and his student M. Stanley Livingston collaborated to build the first cyclotron at the University of California, Berkeley. They put large electromagnets in a circle and then came up with a way to shoot particles through the cyclotron to accelerate them. This work won Lawrence the 1939 Nobel Prize in Physics. Previously, the main particle accelerator used was the linear particle accelerator, or Iinac for short. The first linear accelerator was built in 1928 at the University of Aachen, Germany. Linacs is still in use today, especially in the medical field, and as part of a larger and more complex accelerator. Since Lawrence worked on the cyclotron, these testing devices have been built around the world. The University of California, Berkeley, built several nuclear reactors for its radiation laboratory, and the first European nuclear reactor was built at the Leningrad Radium Institute in Russia. The other was built in Heidelberg in the early days of World War II. Cyclotron is much better than linear accelerator. Unlike linear accelerator design, linear accelerator design requires a series of magnets and magnetic fields to accelerate charged particles linearly. The advantage of circular design is that the charged particle flow will continue to pass through the same magnetic field generated by the magnet. VER, you get a little energy every time. When particles gain energy, they will form larger and larger loops around the inside of the cyclotron and continue to gain more energy through each loop. Eventually, the loops would be so large that high-energy electron beams would pass through the windows, and then they would enter the bombing chamber for research. Essentially, they collide with a plate and scatter particles around the chamber. Cyclotron is the first cyclotron, which provides a more effective way for the further study of accelerating particles. Today, cyclotrons are still used in some areas of medical research, ranging in size from desktop design to building sizes and larger. Another type is the synchrotron accelerator, designed in the 1950s and more powerful. The largest cyclotron is the TRIUMF 500MeV cyclotron, which is still operating at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, and the superconducting ring cyclotron at the Riken Laboratory, Japan. It is 19 meters wide. Scientists use them to study the properties of particles, a substance called condensed matter (particles adhere to each other). More modern particle accelerator designs, such as those on the Large Hadron Collider, can go far beyond this level. These so-called “atom smashers” are built to speed up particles approaching the speed of light, as physicists are looking for smaller and smaller pieces of matter. Searching for Higgs bosons is part of the LHC’s work in Switzerland. New York Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermi Laboratory, Illinois, KEKB and others have other accelerators. These are highly expensive and complex versions of cyclotrons, all dedicated to understanding the particles that make up cosmic matter.

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