In 1932, Ernest Lawrence and his student M. Stanley Livingston collaborated to build the first cyclotron at the University of California, Berkeley. They put large electromagnets in a circle and then came up with a way to shoot particles through the cyclotron to accelerate them. This work won Lawrence the 1939 Nobel Prize in Physics. Previously, the main particle accelerator used was the linear particle accelerator, or Iinac for short. The first linear accelerator was built in 1928 at the University of Aachen, Germany. Linacs is still in use today, especially in the medical field, and as part of a larger and more complex accelerator. Since Lawrence worked on the cyclotron, these testing devices have been built around the world. The University of California, Berkeley, built several nuclear reactors for its radiation laboratory, and the first European nuclear reactor was built at the Leningrad Radium Institute in Russia. The other was built in Heidelberg in the early days of World War II. Cyclotron is much better than linear accelerator. Unlike linear accelerator design, linear accelerator design requires a series of magnets and magnetic fields to accelerate charged particles linearly. The advantage of circular design is that the charged particle flow will continue to pass through the same magnetic field generated by the magnet. VER, you get a little energy every time. When particles gain energy, they will form larger and larger loops around the inside of the cyclotron and continue to gain more energy through each loop. Eventually, the loops would be so large that high-energy electron beams would pass through the windows, and then they would enter the bombing chamber for research. Essentially, they collide with a plate and scatter particles around the chamber. Cyclotron is the first cyclotron, which provides a more effective way for the further study of accelerating particles. Today, cyclotrons are still used in some areas of medical research, ranging in size from desktop design to building sizes and larger. Another type is the synchrotron accelerator, designed in the 1950s and more powerful. The largest cyclotron is the TRIUMF 500MeV cyclotron, which is still operating at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, and the superconducting ring cyclotron at the Riken Laboratory, Japan. It is 19 meters wide. Scientists use them to study the properties of particles, a substance called condensed matter (particles adhere to each other). More modern particle accelerator designs, such as those on the Large Hadron Collider, can go far beyond this level. These so-called “atom smashers” are built to speed up particles approaching the speed of light, as physicists are looking for smaller and smaller pieces of matter. Searching for Higgs bosons is part of the LHC’s work in Switzerland. New York Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermi Laboratory, Illinois, KEKB and others have other accelerators. These are highly expensive and complex versions of cyclotrons, all dedicated to understanding the particles that make up cosmic matter.