美国芝加哥大学经济学Assignment代写:经济衰退期间预算赤字如何增长

预算赤字与经济健康之间存在关系,但肯定不是一个完美的关系。当经济表现良好时,可能存在巨额预算赤字,虽然可能性较小,但在经济困难时期,盈余肯定是可能的。这是因为赤字或盈余不仅取决于所收集的税收(可以被认为与经济活动成比例),还取决于政府采购和转移支付的水平,这是由国会决定的,不需要由经济活动的水平。话虽如此,随着经济的恶化,政府预算往往会从盈余转为赤字(或现有赤字变大)。这通常发生在以下情况:经济陷入​​衰退,使许多工人失去工作,同时导致企业利润下降。这导致较少的所得税收入流入政府,同时减少企业所得税收入。有时,政府的收入流量仍将增长,但速度低于通货膨胀率,这意味着税收流量实际上已经下降。由于许多工人失去了工作,他们的依赖性增加了政府计划的使用,例如失业保险。政府支出越来越多,因为越来越多的人呼吁政府服务,以帮助他们渡过难关。 (这种支出计划被称为自动稳定器,因为它们本质上有助于稳定经济活动和收入。)为帮助经济摆脱衰退并帮助失业者,政府经常创建新的社会计划在经济衰退和萧条期间。罗斯福在20世纪30年代的“新政”就是一个很好的例子。然后政府支出增加,不仅仅是因为现有计划的使用增加,而是通过创建新计划。由于第一因素,政府因经济衰退而从纳税人那里获得的资金减少,而第二和第三因素则意味着政府花费的资金超过了更好的时期。资金开始流出政府的速度超过了它,导致政府的预算陷入赤字。 美国芝加哥大学经济学Assignment代写:经济衰退期间预算赤字如何增长 There is a relationship between budget deficits and the health of the economy, but is certainly not a perfect one. There can be massive budget deficits when the economy is doing quite well, and, though somewhat less likely, surpluses are certainly possible during bad times. This is because a deficit or surplus depends not only on the tax revenues collected (which can be thought of as proportional to economic activity) but also on the level of government purchases and transfer payments, which is determined by Congress and need not be determined by the level of economic activity. That being said, government budgets tend to go from surplus to deficit (or existing deficits become larger) as the economy goes sour. This typically happens as follows: The economy goes into recession, costing many workers their jobs, and at the same time causing corporate profits to decline. This causes less income tax revenue to flow to the government, along with less corporate...
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美国芝加哥大学经济学Assignment代写:植物在经济学中的相关性

虽然植物这个词有时可以与商业或公司这两个词互换使用,但经济学家严格地将这个词用于物理生产设施,而不是公司本身。工厂或工厂很少是经济研究的唯一主题,而是工厂周围和内部发生的商业和经济决策通常是感兴趣的主题。另一方面,另一位经济学家可能对工业结构和组织方面的经济学更感兴趣,其中可能包括在定价决策,工业集团,纵向一体化甚至影响这些工厂的公共政策方面对工厂进行分析。和他们的业务。工厂在经济研究中也具有相关性,因为制造业的物理中心,其成本与采购决策密切相关,公司选择建立其业务的制造部分。例如,对全球制造业经济学的研究在金融和政治领域一直存在争议。以发电厂为例,经济学家可能对发电厂的制造经济学感兴趣,这通常是涉及固定成本和可变成本的成本问题。在经济学和金融学中,发电厂也被认为是资本密集型的​​长期资产,或者需要投入大量资金的资产。因此,经济学家可能有兴趣对电厂项目进行贴现现金流量分析。或者他们对受控制的公用事业公司的股权回报更感兴趣,可能由监管机构决定。简而言之,虽然植物本身(如果被理解为制造和生产的物理位置)并不总是经济研究的主要主题,但它们是现实世界经济问题的核心。 美国芝加哥大学经济学Assignment代写:植物在经济学中的相关性 Though the word plant is sometimes used interchangeably with the words business or firm, economists use the term strictly in relationship to a physical production facility, not the company itself. So rarely is a plant or factory the sole subject of economic study, but rather it is generally the business and economic decisions that take place surrounding and within the plant that are the topics of interest. On the other hand, another economist might be more interested in the economics of plants in terms of industrial structure and organization, which might include an analysis of plants in terms of pricing decisions, industrial groupings, vertical integration, and even public policy affecting those plants and their businesses. Plants also hold relevance in an economic study as the physical centers of manufacturing, the costs of which are very much intertwined with sourcing decisions and where companies choose to set up the manufacturing portion of their business. The study of the economics of global...
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