巴勒斯坦解放组织 – 或巴解组织 – 于1964年成立。顾名思义，它成为巴勒斯坦将巴勒斯坦地区从以色列占领中解放出来的主要组织手段。1969年，亚西尔阿拉法特成为巴解组织领导人。阿拉法特长期以来一直是法塔赫的领导人，法塔赫是一个巴勒斯坦组织，在寻求以色列的自由，同时保持其与其他阿拉伯国家的自治权。阿拉法特参加了1948年的战争，帮助组织对以色列的军事袭击，对巴解组织的军事和外交努力施加了控制。阿拉法特长期否认以色列的生存权。然而，他的男高音发生了变化，到了20世纪80年代末，他接受了以色列存在的事实。
The Palestinian Liberation Organization — or PLO — formed in 1964. As its name suggests, it became Palestine’s primary organizational device to free Palestinian regions from Israeli occupation.In 1969, Yasser Arafat became leader of the PLO. Arafat had long been a leader in Fatah, a Palestinian organization that sought freedom from Israel while maintaining its autonomy from other Arab states. Arafat, who had fought in the 1948 war and had helped organize military raids against Israel, exerted control over both PLO military and diplomatic efforts.Arafat long denied Israel’s right to exist. However, his tenor changed, and by the late 1980s he accepted the fact of Israel’s existence.
Secret Meetings in Oslo
Arafat’s new opinion on Israel, Egypt’s treaty of peace with Israel in 1979, and Arab cooperation with the United States in defeating Iraq in the Persian Gulf War of 1991, opened new doors to possible Israeli-Palestinian peace. Israeli Prime Minister Rabin, elected in 1992, also wanted to explore new avenues of peace. He knew, however, that direct talks with the PLO would be politically divisive.Norway offered to provide a place where Israeli and Palestinian diplomats could hold secret meetings. In a secluded, wooded area near Oslo, diplomats gathered in 1992. They held 14 secret meetings. Since the diplomats all stayed under the same roof and frequently took walks together in secured areas of the woods, many other unofficial meetings also occurred.