在1750年之前,工业革命的传统任意开始日期,大多数英国和欧洲工业都是传统的,并依赖水作为主要动力源。这是一项成熟的技术,使用溪流和水车,并且在英国景观中得到了证实和广泛使用。然而,存在重大问题,因为你必须靠近合适的水,这可能会导致你到达偏僻的地方,并且它往往会冻结或干涸。另一方面,它很便宜。水对于运输,河流和沿海贸易也至关重要。动物也被用于动力和运输,但由于它们的食物和护理,它们的运行成本很高。为了实现快速工业化,需要替代能源。人们在17世纪试验过蒸汽动力发动机作为解决电力问题的方法,并于1698年发明了他的“用火水提升机器”。用于康沃尔锡矿,这种抽水用简单的上下运动,仅用于有限的使用,不能用于机械。它还有一种爆炸的趋势,蒸汽开发受到专利的阻碍,Savery持有了三十五年。 1712年托马斯纽科门开发了一种不同类型的发动机并绕过了专利。这首先在斯塔福德郡的煤矿中使用,具有大部分旧的限制并且运行起来很昂贵,但具有不爆炸的明显优势。在十八世纪下半叶,发明家詹姆斯瓦特(James Watt)是一位以其他人的发展为基础并成为蒸汽技术主要贡献者的人。 1763年,瓦特为纽科门的发动机增加了一个单独的冷凝器,节省了燃料;在此期间,他与参与炼铁行业的人们合作。然后瓦特与一位改变职业的前玩具制造商合作。 1781年瓦特,前玩具人博尔顿和默多克建造了“旋转动作蒸汽机”。这是一项重大突破,因为它可以用于动力机械,并且在1788年安装了离心调速器以保持发动机以均匀的速度运转。现在有更广泛的工业替代电源,1800年后开始大规模生产蒸汽机。然而,考虑到蒸汽在传统上被称为从1750年开始的革命中的声誉,蒸汽的采用相对较慢。在蒸汽动力主要使用之前已经进行了大量的工业化,并且在没有蒸汽动力的情况下,许多工业化已经发展和改进。成本最初是单因素控制引擎,因为工业家使用其他电源来降低启动成本并避免重大风险。一些工业家有一种保守的态度,只是慢慢转向蒸汽。也许更重要的是,第一台蒸汽机效率低,使用大量煤炭 – 首先是易爆 – 并且需要大规模的生产设施才能正常工作,而许多工业规模较小。需要时间 – 直到19世纪30年代/ 40年代 – 煤炭价格下跌,工业变得足够大,需要更多的电力。随着时间的推移,纺织工业在国内系统的许多劳动者中使用了许多不同的能源,从水到人。第一家工厂建于十八世纪初,并使用水力,因为当时纺织品只能用少量电力生产。扩张的形式是为水轮扩展更多的河流。当蒸汽动力机械成为可能时c。 1780年,纺织品最初采用该技术的速度很慢,因为它价格昂贵且需要很高的起动成本并造成麻烦。然而,随着时间的推移,蒸汽的成本下降,使用量增加。水和蒸汽动力在1820年变得更加平稳,到1830年,蒸汽领先,随着新工厂的建立,纺织工业的生产率大幅提高。

澳洲悉尼科技大学论文代写:工业革命中的蒸汽

Prior to 1750, the traditional revolutionary start date of the Industrial Revolution, most British and European industries were traditional and relied on water as the main source of power. This is a mature technology that uses streams and waterwheels and is proven and widely used in the British landscape. However, there are major problems because you must be close to the right water, which can cause you to reach a remote location, and it tends to freeze or dry up. On the other hand, it is very cheap. Water is also vital for transportation, rivers and coastal trade. Animals are also used for power and transportation, but because of their food and care, they are expensive to operate. In order to achieve rapid industrialization, alternative energy sources are needed. In the 17th century, steam-powered engines were tested as a method to solve power problems, and in 1698 he invented his “fire machine to raise the machine.” For Cornwall tin mines, this pumping uses simple up and down movements for limited use and cannot be used for machinery. It also has a tendency to explode, steam development is hampered by patents, and Savery has held it for thirty-five years. In 1712 Thomas Newcomen developed a different type of engine and bypassed the patent. This was first used in a coal mine in Staffordshire, with most of the old restrictions and was expensive to operate, but with the obvious advantage of not exploding. In the second half of the eighteenth century, the inventor James Watt was a man who was based on the development of others and became a major contributor to steam technology. In 1763, Watt added a separate condenser to Newcomen’s engine, saving fuel; during this time, he worked with people involved in the ironmaking industry. Then Watt worked with a former toy manufacturer that changed careers. In 1781, the former toy people Bolton and Murdoch built the “rotary action steam engine.” This was a major breakthrough because it could be used in power machinery and in 1788 a centrifugal governor was installed to keep the engine running at a uniform speed. There is now a wider range of industrial alternative power sources, and mass production of steam engines began in 1800. However, given the reputation of steam traditionally known as the revolution that began in 1750, the adoption of steam is relatively slow. A large amount of industrialization has been carried out before the main use of steam power, and many industrializations have been developed and improved without steam power. The cost was originally a one-factor control engine because industrialists used other power sources to reduce startup costs and avoid significant risks. Some industrialists have a conservative attitude, but slowly turn to steam. Perhaps more importantly, the first steam engine was inefficient, using a lot of coal – first and foremost explosive – and required large-scale production facilities to work properly, while many industries were smaller. It takes time – until the 1930s / 1940s – coal prices fell, the industry became big enough and needed more electricity. Over time, the textile industry has used many different sources of energy from water to people in many workers in the domestic system. The first factory was built in the early eighteenth century and uses hydraulic power because textiles can only be produced with a small amount of electricity. The form of expansion is to expand more rivers for the water wheel. When steam powered machinery becomes possible c. In 1780, the initial adoption of this technology in textiles was slow because it was expensive and required high starting costs and caused trouble. However, as time goes by, the cost of steam decreases and the amount of use increases. Water and steam power became more stable in 1820, with steam leading by 1830, and with the establishment of new plants, the productivity of the textile industry increased dramatically.

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