Marie Zakrzewska出生于德国,拥有波兰人的家庭背景。她的父亲在柏林担任政府职务。玛丽15岁时照顾她的阿姨和姑姑。 1849年,在母亲的职业生涯之后,她在皇家Charite医院的柏林助产士学校接受了助产士培训。在那里,她表现出色,毕业后于1852年在学校担任主任助产士和教授。她的任命遭到学校许多人的反对,因为她是一名女性。玛丽在六个月后离开,并于1853年3月搬到纽约。在那里,她住在德国社区做缝纫缝纫。她的母亲和另外两个姐妹跟随玛丽和她的妹妹去了美国。 Zakrzewska对其他妇女的权利问题和废除权利产生了兴趣。 William Lloyd Garrison和Wendell Phillips是朋友,一些来自德国1848年社会动荡的难民也是朋友。 Zakrzewska在纽约遇见了Elizabeth Blackwell。在找到她的背景后,布莱克威尔帮助Zakrzewska进入Western Reserve的医疗培训计划。 Zakrzewska于1856年毕业。学校从1857年开始接纳女性进入医疗项目; Zakrzewska毕业的那一年,学校停止招收女性。 Zakrzewska博士作为住院医师前往纽约,帮助伊丽莎白布莱克威尔和她的妹妹艾米丽布莱克威尔建立纽约妇女儿童医院。她还担任护理学生的讲师,开设了自己的私人诊所,同时担任医务室的管家。她被患者和工作人员称为Zak博士。当新英格兰女子医学院在波士顿开学时,Zakrzewska离开纽约,在新学院任命为产科教授。 1861年,Zakrzewska帮助建立了新英格兰妇女和儿童医院,由女性医疗专业人员组成,第二个这样的机构,第一个是布莱克威尔姐妹建立的纽约医院。在退休之前,她参与了医院。她曾作为住院医师工作过一段时间,并担任过护士长。她还担任行政职务。通过多年与医院的合作,她还保持了私人诊所。 1872年,Zakrzewska成立了一所与医院相关的护理学校。着名的毕业生是Mary Eliza Mahoney,他是第一位在美国接受过专业训练的护士的非裔美国人。她于1879年从学校毕业.Zakrzewska与朱莉娅斯普拉格分享了她的家,本来可能会使用一个直到晚年才使用的术语,一个女同性恋伴侣;两人共用一间卧室。家里还与Karl Heinzen及其妻子和孩子分享。海因岑是德国移民,与激进运动有政治关系。 Zakrzewska于1899年从医院和医疗机构退休,并于1902年5月12日去世。

澳洲西澳大学社会学Assignment代写:Marie Zakrzewska

Marie Zakrzewska was born in Germany to a family of Polish background. Her father had taken a government position in Berlin. Marie at age 15 cared for her aunt and great-aunt. In 1849, following her mother’s profession, she trained as a midwife at the Berlin School for Midwives at the Royal Charite Hospital. There, she excelled, and on graduation earned a post at the school as head midwife and professor in 1852. Her appointment was opposed by many at the school, because she was a woman. Marie left after just six months and, with a sister, moved to New York in March 1853. There, she lived in the German community doing piecework sewing. Her mother and two other sisters followed Marie and her sister to America. Zakrzewska became interested in other women’s rights issue and in abolition. William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips were friends, as were some refugees from Germany’s 1848 social upheaval. Zakrzewska met Elizabeth Blackwell in New York. On finding out her background, Blackwell helped Zakrzewska get into Western Reserve’s medical training program. Zakrzewska graduated in 1856. The school had admitted women into their medical program starting in 1857; the year Zakrzewska graduated, the school stopped admitting women. Dr. Zakrzewska went to New York as a resident physician, helping establish the New York Infirmary for Women and Children with Elizabeth Blackwell and her sister Emily Blackwell. She also served as the instructor of nursing students, opened her own private practice, and at the same time served as the housekeeper for the Infirmary. She became known to patients and staff as simply Dr. Zak. When New England Female Medical College opened in Boston, Zakrzewska left New York for an appointment at the new college as professor of obstetrics. In 1861, Zakrzewska helped to found the New England Hospital for Women and Children, staffed by women medical professionals, the second such institution, the first being the New York hospital founded by the Blackwell sisters. She was involved with the hospital until her retirement. She worked for a time as the resident physician and also served as head nurse. She also served in administrative positions. Through her years of association with the hospital, she also maintained a private practice. In 1872, Zakrzewska founded a nursing school associated with the hospital. A noted graduate was Mary Eliza Mahoney, the first African American to work as a professional trained nurse in the United States. She graduated from the school in 1879. Zakrzewska shared her home with Julia Sprague, in what might have been, to use a term not used until later years, a lesbian partnership; the two shared a bedroom. The home was also shared with Karl Heinzen and his wife and child. Heinzen was a German immigrant with political ties to radical movements. Zakrzewska retired from the hospital and her medical practice in 1899, and died May 12, 1902.

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