这种防御系统可以抵御特定的威胁，例如特定的细菌，病毒，朊病毒和霉菌。针对一种病原体起作用的特定防御通常不会对另一种病原体起作用。特定免疫力的一个例子是来自暴露或疫苗的抗性水痘。另一种分组免疫反应的方法是：先天免疫 – 一种遗传或基于遗传易感性的天然免疫。这种免疫力可以防止从出生到死亡。先天免疫包括外部防御（第一道防线）和内部防御（第二道防线）。内部防御包括发烧，补体系统，自然杀伤（NK）细胞，炎症，吞噬细胞和干扰素。先天免疫也被称为遗传免疫或家族免疫。获得性免疫 – 获得性或适应性免疫是身体的第三道防线。这是针对特定类型病原体的保护。获得性免疫可以是天然的或人为的。天然和人工免疫都具有被动和有源部件。主动免疫是由感染或免疫引起的，而被动免疫来自天然或人工获得抗体。让我们仔细看看主动和被动免疫以及它们之间的差异。
This line of defenses is active against particular threats, such as particular bacteria, viruses, prions, and mold. A specific defense that acts against one pathogen usually isn’t active against a different one. An example of specific immunity is resistance chicken pox either from exposure or a vaccine. Another way to group immune responses is: Innate Immunity – A type of natural immunity that is inherited or based on genetic predisposition. This type of immunity confers protection from birth until death. Innate immunity consists of external defenses (the first line of defense) and internal defenses (second line of defense). Internal defenses include fever, the complement system, natural killer (NK) cells, inflammation, phagocytes, and interferon. Innate immunity is also known as genetic immunity or familial immunity. Acquired Immunity – Acquired or adaptive immunity is the body’s third line of defense. This is protection against specific types of pathogens. Acquired immunity may be either natural or artificial in nature. Both natural and artificial immunity have passive and active components. Active immunity results from an infection or an immunization, while passive immunity comes from naturally or artificially gaining antibodies. Let’s take a closer look at active and passive immunity and the differences between them.