根据社会科学,种族主义有七种主要形式:代表性,意识形态,话语性,互动性,制度性,结构性和系统性。种族主义也可以用其他方式来定义 – 反向种族主义,微妙的种族主义,内化的种族主义,色彩主义。1968年,在马丁路德金被枪杀后的第二天,反种族主义专家和前三年级的老师简·埃利奥特为她在爱荷华州的所有白人三年级的教授设计了一个现在着名但又颇具争议的实验,关于种族主义的孩子们,她用眼睛将他们分成蓝色和棕色,并对蓝眼睛的群体表现出极度的偏爱。自那时以来,她一直为不同的群体进行过这个实验,其中包括1992年奥普拉·温弗瑞秀的观众,被称为“改变奥普拉秀的反种族主义实验”。观众中的人们被眼睛分开;对蓝眼睛的人进行了歧视,对棕眼睛的人进行了有利的处理。观众的反应非常明显,表明有些人很快就认同他们的眼睛颜色群体,并且有偏见地行事,以及成为受到不公平待遇的人感觉如何。微观冲突是种族主义的另一种表现。正如“日常生活中的种族微观灾难”中所解释的那样,“种族微观暴力是短暂而常见的日常言语,行为或环境侮辱,无论是有意还是无意,沟通敌视,贬损或消极的种族偏见和对有色人种的侮辱。”微侵犯的一个例子属于“犯罪状态的假设”,并包括有人穿过街道的另一边以避免有色人种。此微观列表可用作识别它们及其发送的消息的工具。

澳洲莫纳什大学社会学Essay代写:解除种族歧视-反种族主义教学资源

According to social science, there are seven main forms of racism: representational, ideological, discursive, interactional, institutional, structural, and systemic. Racism can be defined in other ways as well — reverse racism, subtle racism, internalized racism, colorism.In 1968, the day after Martin Luther King was shot, the anti-racism expert and former third-grade teacher, Jane Elliott, devised a now-famous but then-controversial experiment for her all-white third-grade class in Iowa to teach the children about racism, in which she separated them by eye color into blue and brown, and showed extreme favoritism toward the group with blue eyes. She has conducted this experiment repeatedly for different groups since then, including the audience for an Oprah Winfrey show in 1992, known as The Anti-Racism Experiment That Transformed an Oprah Show. People in the audience were separated by eye color; those with blue eyes were discriminated against while those with brown eyes were treated favorably. The reactions of the audience were illuminating, showing how quickly some people came to identify with their eye color group and behave prejudicially, and what it felt like to be the ones who were being treated unfairly.Microaggressions are another expression of racism. As explained in Racial Microagressions in Everyday Life, “Racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults toward people of color.” An example of microaggression falls under “assumption of criminal status” and includes someone crossing to the other side of the street to avoid a person of color. This list of microagressions serves as a tool to recognize them and the messages they send.

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