农业社会将经济主要集中在农业和大型农田的种植上。这与狩猎 – 采集社会和园艺社会不同，狩猎 – 采集社会不生产自己的食物，园艺社会在小花园而不是田地生产食物。从狩猎 – 采集社会到农业社会的过渡被称为新石器时代的革命，并且在世界各地不同时期发生过。最早的新石器时代革命发生在1万至8，000年前的肥沃新月 – 中东地区，从现今的伊拉克延伸到埃及。农业社会发展的其他领域包括中美洲和南美洲，东亚（印度），中国和东南亚。土地社会允许更复杂的社会结构。狩猎采集者花费了大量的时间寻找食物。农民的劳动创造了剩余的食物，可以在一段时间内储存，从而使其他社会成员免于寻求食物。这使得农业社会成员之间的专业化程度更高。由于农业社会中的土地是财富的基础，社会结构变得更加僵化。与没有土地来种植农作物的土地所有者相比，土地所有者拥有更多的权力和威望。因此，农业社会往往拥有统治阶级的土地所有者和较低级别的工人。此外，剩余食物的供应允许更大的人口密度。最终，农业社会导致城市社会。狩猎 – 采集社会如何过渡到农业社会尚不清楚。有许多理论，包括基于气候变化和社会压力的理论。但在某些时候，这些社会故意种植农作物并改变其生命周期以适应其农业的生命周期。随着狩猎 – 采集社会逐渐演变为农业社会，农业社会也演变为工业社会。当不到一半的农业社会成员积极参与农业时，该社会已成为工业。这些社会进口食品，他们的城市是贸易和制造业的中心。工业社会也是技术创新者。今天，工业革命仍在应用于农业社会。虽然它仍然是最常见的人类经济活动，但农业在世界产出中所占比例越来越小。应用于农业的技术使农场的产量增加，同时需要更少的实际农民。
An agrarian society focuses its economy primarily on agriculture and the cultivation of large fields. This distinguishes it from the hunter-gatherer society, which produces none of its own food, and the horticultural society, which produces food in small gardens rather than fields. The transition from hunter-gatherer societies to agrarian societies is called the Neolithic Revolution and has happened at various times in various parts of the world. The earliest known Neolithic Revolution happened between 10,000 and 8,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent — the area of the Middle East stretching from present-day Iraq to Egypt. Other areas of agrarian societal development include Central and South America, East Asia (India), China, and Southeast Asia. Agrarian Societies allow for more complex social structures. Hunter-gatherers spend an inordinate amount of time seeking food. The farmer’s labor creates surplus food, which can be stored over periods of time, and thus frees other members of society from the quest for foodstuffs. This allows for greater specialization among members of agrarian societies. As land in an agrarian society is the basis for wealth, social structures become more rigid. Landowners have more power and prestige than those who do not have land to produce crops. Thus agrarian societies often have a ruling class of landowners and a lower class of workers. In addition, the availability of surplus food allows for a greater density of population. Eventually, agrarian societies lead to urban ones. How hunter-gatherer societies transitioned to agrarian societies is unclear. There are many theories, including ones based on climate change and social pressures. But at some point, these societies deliberately planted crops and changed their life cycles to accommodate the life cycles of their agriculture. As hunter-gatherer societies evolve into agrarian societies, so do agrarian societies evolve into industrial ones. When less than half the members of an agrarian society are actively engaged in agriculture, that society has become industrial. These societies import food, and their cities are centers of trade and manufacturing. Industrial societies are also innovators in technology. Today, the Industrial Revolution is still being applied to agrarian societies. While it is still the most common kind of human economic activity, agriculture accounts for less and less of the world’s output. Technology applied to agriculture has created increases in the output of farms while requiring fewer actual farmers.