名义利率是调整通货膨胀前的利率。了解货币供应量和货币需求如何结合在一起来确定经济中的名义利率。这些解释还附有相关的图表,将有助于说明这些经济交易。就像在一个相当自由的市场经济中许多经济变量一样,利率是由供求力量决定的。具体地说,名义利率,即储蓄的货币回报,是由经济中货币的供给和需求决定的。显然,一个经济体的利率不止一个,政府发行的证券的利率甚至不止一个。这些利率趋向于串联移动,因此通过观察一个代表性利率,可以分析整体利率的变化。和其他供求图一样,货币的供给和需求是以货币价格为纵轴,货币数量为横轴绘制的。但是钱的“价格”是什么呢?事实证明,货币的价格是持有货币的机会成本。因为现金不能赚取利息,所以当人们选择把财富存入现金时,他们就会放弃非现金储蓄所能赚取的利息。因此,货币的机会成本,也就是货币的价格,就是名义利率。资金的供应很容易用图形来描述。它由美联储决定,更通俗地称为美联储,因此不受利率的直接影响。美联储可能选择改变货币供应量,因为它想改变名义利率。因此,货币供应量由美联储决定投入公共领域的货币数量的垂直线表示。当美联储增加货币供应量时,这条线向右移动。类似地,当美联储减少货币供应量时,这条线向左移动。作为一个提醒,美联储通常通过公开市场操作来控制货币的供应,在那里买卖政府债券。当它购买债券时,经济得到美联储用于购买的现金,货币供应量增加。当它出售债券时,它接受货币作为支付,货币供应量减少。事实上,即使量化宽松只是这个过程的一个变种。和其他市场一样,均衡的价格和数量是在供需曲线的交点处发现的。在这个图表中,货币的供给和需求结合起来决定一个经济体的名义利率。当供给的数量等于需求数量时,市场就会达到平衡,因为过剩(供给超过需求的情况)推动价格下降,而短缺(需求超过供给的情况)推动价格上升。因此,稳定的价格就是既没有短缺也没有盈余的价格。就货币市场而言,利率必须进行调整,以便人们愿意持有美联储试图投入经济中的所有货币,并且人们不会要求持有比现有更多的货币。

澳大利亚新南威尔士大学经济学Essay代写:名义利率

Nominal interest rate is the rate before inflation. Understand how money supply and demand are combined to determine nominal interest rates in the economy. These explanations are accompanied by relevant charts, which will help to illustrate these economic transactions. Like many economic variables in a fairly free market economy, interest rates are determined by supply and demand forces. Specifically, nominal interest rates, the monetary return on savings, are determined by the supply and demand of money in the economy. Obviously, there are more than one interest rate in an economy and even more than one interest rate on government-issued securities. These interest rates tend to move in series, so by observing a representative interest rate, we can analyze the change of the overall interest rate. Like other supply and demand maps, money supply and demand are drawn on the vertical axis of money price and the horizontal axis of money quantity. But what is the “price” of money? It has been proved that the price of money is the opportunity cost of holding money. Because cash can’t earn interest, when people choose to deposit their wealth in cash, they give up the interest earned by non-cash savings. Therefore, the opportunity cost of money, that is, the price of money, is the nominal interest rate. The supply of funds can be easily described in graphics. It is decided by the Federal Reserve, more commonly known as the Federal Reserve, and therefore is not directly affected by interest rates. The Fed may choose to change the money supply because it wants to change nominal interest rates. Therefore, the money supply is represented by the vertical line of the amount of money that the Fed decides to invest in the public domain. When the Fed increases the money supply, the line moves to the right. Similarly, when the Fed reduces money supply, the line moves to the left. As a reminder, the Fed usually controls the supply of money through open market operations, where it buys and sells government bonds. When it buys bonds, the economy receives cash from the Federal Reserve for purchases, and the money supply increases. When it sells bonds, it accepts money as payment and the money supply decreases. In fact, even quantitative easing is only a variation of this process. Like other markets, equilibrium prices and quantities are found at the intersection of supply and demand curves. In this chart, the supply and demand of money combine to determine the nominal interest rate of an economy. When the quantity of supply equals the quantity of demand, the market will reach equilibrium, because excess (supply exceeds demand) drives prices down, while shortage (demand exceeds supply) drives prices up. Therefore, a stable price is a price that has neither shortage nor surplus. As far as money markets are concerned, interest rates must be adjusted so that people are willing to hold all the currencies the Fed is trying to put into the economy, and they will not ask to hold more currencies than they already have.

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