启发式(也称为“心理快捷方式”或“经验法则”)是有效的心理过程,可以帮助人们解决问题和学习新概念。这些过程通过忽略大脑中的一些信息(无论是有意识的还是有意识的)来使问题变得不那么复杂。今天,启发式已经成为判断和决策领域的一个有影响力的概念。格式塔心理学家假设人类基于启发式方法解决问题和感知对象.20世纪初,心理学​​家马克斯·韦特海默(Max Wertheimer)发现了人类群体的法则将对象组合成图案(例如,矩形形状的一组点)。今天最常研究的启发式是那些处理决策的启发式。在20世纪50年代,经济学家和政治学家Herbert Simon发表了他的理性行为模型选择,侧重于有限理性的概念:人们必须在有限的时间内做出决策的想法我,心理资源和信息。 1974年,心理学家Amos Tversky和Daniel Kahneman指出了用于简化决策的特定心理过程。他们表明,人们在做出有关他们不确定的信息的决策时,依赖于一套有限的启发式方法 – 例如,在决定是否为现在的海外旅行或从今天开始的一周之后换钱。 Tversky和Kahneman也表明,尽管启发式算法很有用,但它们可能会导致思维错误,这些错误既可预测又不可预测。在20世纪90年代,研究启发,通过格尔德·吉杰伦泽的研究小组的工作作为例证,重点是如何因素对环境的影响思维,尤其是,该战略头脑用途由环境,而不是思想,心灵的影响使用心理快捷方式来节省时间和精力。

澳大利亚纽卡斯尔大学心理学Essay代写:心理学捷径

Heuristics (also called “mental shortcuts” or “rules of thumb”) are efficient mental processes that help humans solve problems and learn new concepts. These processes make problems less complex by ignoring some of the information that’s coming into the brain, either consciously or unconsciously. Today, heuristics have become an influential concept in the areas of judgment and decision-making. Gestalt psychologists postulated that humans solve problems and perceive objects based on heuristics. In the early 20th century, the psychologist Max Wertheimer identified laws by which humans group objects together into patterns (e.g. a cluster of dots in the shape of a rectangle). The heuristics most commonly studied today are those that deal with decision-making. In the 1950s, economist and political scientist Herbert Simon published his A Behavioral Model of Rational Choice, which focused on the concept of on bounded rationality: the idea that people must make decisions with limited time, mental resources, and information. In 1974, psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman pinpointed specific mental processes used to simplify decision-making. They showed that humans rely on a limited set of heuristics when making decisions with information about which they are uncertain—for example, when deciding whether to exchange money for a trip overseas now or a week from today. Tversky and Kahneman also showed that, although heuristics are useful, they can lead to errors in thinking that are both predictable and unpredictable. In the 1990s, research on heuristics, as exemplified by the work of Gerd Gigerenzer’s research group, focused on how factors in the environment impact thinking–particularly, that the strategies the mind uses are influenced by the environment–rather than the idea that the mind uses mental shortcuts to save time and effort.

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