第一次世界大战结束后,美国,英国和日本都开始了大规模的资本船建造计划。在美国,这种形式有五艘新战列舰和四艘战列舰,而横跨大西洋的皇家海军正在准备建造一系列G3战列舰和N3战列舰。对于日本人来说,战后的海军建设始于一项计划,要求新建8艘战舰和8艘新战列舰。这场大规模的狂欢引发了人们的担忧,即类似于战前的英德竞争的新海军军备竞赛即将开始。为了防止这种情况,沃伦·G·哈丁总统于1921年底召集华盛顿海军会议,其目标是对军舰建设和吨位进行限制。代表们于1921年11月12日在国际联盟的主持下召开会议,在华盛顿特区的纪念大陆会堂举行会议。出席太平洋地区关注的9个国家的主要参与者包括美国,英国,日本,法国和意大利。领导美国代表团的是国务卿查尔斯·埃文·休斯,他试图限制日本在太平洋地区的扩张主义。对于英国人来说,这次会议提供了一个机会,可以避免与美国的军备竞赛以及实现太平洋地区稳定的机会,从而为香港,新加坡,澳大利亚和新西兰提供保护。抵达华盛顿后,日本人拥有一个明确的议程,其中包括一项海军条约,并承认他们在满洲和蒙古的利益。如果发生军备竞赛,两国都担心美国造船厂能够超越它们。随着谈判的开始,休斯在赫伯特·亚德利的“黑室”提供的情报帮助下获得了帮助。 Yardley办公室由国务院和美国陆军合作运营,其任务是拦截和解密代表团与其本国政府之间的通信。在打破日本代码和阅读流量方面取得了特别进展。从这个来源获得的情报使得休斯能够与日本人就最有利的交易进行谈判。经过几个星期的会议,世界上第一个裁军条约于1922年2月6日签署。作为这些限制的一部分,没有一艘船超过35,000吨或装载超过16英寸的枪。航空母舰的载重量限制为27,000吨,但每个国家可能达到33,000吨。关于陆上设施,会议同意维持条约签署时的现状。这禁止在小岛屿领土和财产上进一步扩大或加强海军基地。允许在大陆或大岛(如夏威夷)扩建。由于一些委托的战舰超出了条约条款,因此对现有吨位进行了一些例外。根据该条约,可以更换旧的战舰,但是,新船必须符合限制条件,所有签署者都应被告知其建造情况。条约规定的5:5:3:1:1比例导致谈判期间的摩擦。法国拥有大西洋和地中海沿岸的海岸,认为应该允许比意大利拥有更大的船队。他们终于确信通过英国在大西洋的支持承诺同意这一比例。

澳大利亚南澳大学历史学Assignment代写:华盛顿海军条约

Following the end of World War I, the United States, Great Britain, and Japan all commenced large-scale programs of capital ship construction. In the United States, this took the form of five new battleships and four battlecruisers, while across the Atlantic the Royal Navy was preparing to build its series of G3 Battlecruisers and N3 Battleships. For the Japanese, the postwar naval construction began with a program calling for eight new battleships and eight new battlecruisers. This building spree led to concern that a new naval arms race, similar to the pre-war Anglo-German competition, was about to begin. Seeking to prevent this, President Warren G. Harding called the Washington Naval Conference in late 1921, with the goal of establishing limits on warship construction and tonnage. Convening on November 12, 1921, under the auspices of the League of Nations, the delegates met at Memorial Continental Hall in Washington DC. Attended by nine countries with concerns in the Pacific, the principal players included the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy. Leading the American delegation was Secretary of State Charles Evan Hughes who sought to limit Japanese expansionism in the Pacific. For the British, the conference offered an opportunity to avoid an arms race with the US as well as an opportunity to achieve stability in the Pacific which would provide protection to Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia, and New Zealand. Arriving in Washington, the Japanese possessed a clear agenda that included a naval treaty and recognition of their interests in Manchuria and Mongolia. Both nations were concerned about the power of American shipyards to out-produce them if an arms race were to occur. As the negotiations commenced, Hughes was aided by intelligence provided by Herbert Yardley’s “Black Chamber.” Operated cooperatively by the State Department and US Army, Yardley’s office was tasked with intercepting and decrypting communications between the delegations and their home governments. Particular progress was made breaking Japanese codes and reading their traffic. The intelligence received from this source permitted Hughes to negotiate the most favorable deal possible with the Japanese. After several weeks of meetings, the world’s first disarmament treaty was signed on February 6, 1922. As part of these restrictions, no single ship was to exceed 35,000 tons or mount larger than 16-inch guns. Aircraft carrier size was capped at 27,000 tons, though two per nation could be as large as 33,000 tons. In regard to onshore facilities, it was agreed that the status quo at the time of the treaty’s signing would be maintained. This prohibited the further expansion or fortification of naval bases in small island territories and possessions. Expansion on the mainland or large islands (such as Hawaii) was permitted. Since some commissioned warships exceeded the treaty terms, some exceptions were made for existing tonnage. Under the treaty, older warships could be replaced, however, the new vessels were required to meet the restrictions and all signatories were to be informed of their construction. The 5:5:3:1:1 ratio imposed by the treaty led to friction during negotiations. France, with coasts on the Atlantic and Mediterranean, felt that it should be permitted a larger fleet than Italy. They were finally convinced to agree to the ratio by promises of British support in the Atlantic.

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