If a country is landlocked, it is likely to be poor. In fact, most countries that lack coastal access are among the world’s Least Developed Countries (LDCs), and their inhabitants occupy the “bottom billion” tier of the world’s population in terms of poverty. Outside Europe, there is not a single successful, highly developed, landlocked country when measured with the Human Development Index (HDI), and most of the countries with the lowest HDI scores are landlocked. The United Nations has an Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries, and Small Island Developing States. The UN-OHRLLS holds the view that high transport costs due to distance and terrain detract from landlocked countries’ competitive edge for exports. Landlocked countries that do attempt to participate in the global economy must contend with the administrative burden of transporting goods through neighboring countries or must pursue costly alternatives to shipping, such as air-freight. There are several factors that have contributed to the success of these landlocked countries. First, they are simply more geographically fortunate than most other landlocked countries by virtue of being located in Europe, where no country is very far from a coast. Furthermore, the coastal neighbors of these wealthy countries enjoy strong economies, political stability, internal peace, reliable infrastructure and friendly relations across their borders. Luxembourg, for example, is well-connected to the rest of Europe by roads, railways, and airlines and can count on being able to export goods and labor through Belgium, the Netherlands, and France almost effortlessly. In contrast, Ethiopia’s nearest coasts are across borders with Somalia and Eritrea, which are usually beset with political turmoil, internal conflict, and poor infrastructure. The political boundaries that separate countries from coasts are not as meaningful in Europe as they are in the developing world.