Before chemistry was a science, there was alchemy. One of the highest tasks of alchemy is to convert lead into gold. Lead (atomic number 82) and gold (atomic number 79) are defined as elements by the number of protons they possess. Changing elements requires changing the number of atoms (protons). The number of protons cannot be changed by any chemical method. However, physics can be used to add or remove protons, thereby changing one element into another. Because lead is stable, forcing it to release three protons requires a lot of energy input, which makes the cost of its transformation greatly exceed the value of the gold obtained. The transformation of lead into gold is not only theoretically possible, but also practically possible. It has been reported that Glenn Heeberg, the 1951 Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry, successfully converted trace lead (probably halfway from bismuth in 1980) into gold. There was an early report (1972) in which Soviet physicists discovered the reaction of lead to gold at a nuclear research facility near Lake Baikal in Siberia, when they found that the lead shield of the experimental reactor had turned to gold. Today particle accelerators often convert elements. Charged particles are accelerated by electric and/or magnetic fields. In linear accelerators, charged particles drift through a series of charged tubes separated by gaps. Whenever a particle appears between gaps, it is accelerated by the potential difference between adjacent segments. In a circular accelerator, the magnetic field accelerates the motion of particles in a circular path. In either case, accelerated particles hit the target material, potentially hitting free protons or neutrons, and creating new elements or isotopes. Nuclear reactors can also be used to make components, although conditions are less controlled. In nature, new elements are formed by adding protons and neutrons to hydrogen atoms in the nucleus of a star, resulting in heavier and heavier elements, reaching iron (atomic number 26). This process is called nuclear synthesis. Iron-specific elements are formed in supernova star explosions. In supernovae, gold can be converted into lead, not vice versa. Although it may never be common to convert lead into gold, it is feasible to obtain gold from lead ores. Galena (lead sulfide, lead sulfide), galena (lead carbonate, lead carbonate, lead carbonate) and amphibole (lead sulfate, lead sulfate, lead sulfate) usually contain zinc, gold, silver and other metals. Once the ore is crushed, chemical technology is sufficient to separate gold from lead. The result is almost alchemy… Almost.