乔治卡尔弗特，第一位巴尔的摩勋爵获得宪章，在查理一世国王身边在波托马克河以东建立了一个殖民地。他是一位宣布成立的罗马天主教徒，并希望在新世界中首先找到一个获得经济利益的殖民地，不久后作为一个地方天主教徒可以在不担心受到迫害的情况下生活。那时，天主教徒受到歧视。罗马天主教徒不被允许担任公职。作为反天主教情绪的进一步表现，1666年发生的伦敦大火被归咎于天主教徒。新殖民地被命名为马里兰州，以纪念亨利埃塔玛丽亚，后者是查理一世的女王。乔治卡尔弗特以前曾参与过纽芬兰的定居，但发现这片土地荒凉，希望这个新殖民地能够取得经济上的成功。就我而言，查理一世将分享新殖民地所创造的收入。然而，在他能够安置土地之前，乔治卡尔弗特去世了。该宪章随后由他的儿子Cecelius Calvert（第二位巴尔的摩勋爵）接手。该殖民地的第一任州长将是Cecelius Calvert的兄弟Leonard。第一批约140名定居者进入两艘船，即方舟和鸽子。有趣的是，事实上，只有17名定居者是罗马天主教徒。其余的是新教契约的仆人。他们抵达圣克莱门特岛并成立圣玛丽。他们大量参与烟草种植，这是他们的主要经济作物以及小麦和玉米。在最初的十五年里，新教定居者的人数增加了，人们担心宗教自由会被天主教徒带走。宽容法案于1649年由州长威廉斯通通过，以保护那些相信耶稣基督的人。然而，这并不是问题的结束，因为这一行为于1654年被彻底解除，当时彻底发生冲突并且清教徒控制了殖民地。巴尔的摩勋爵实际上失去了他的所有权，他的家人能够重新获得控制权还有一段时间。直到18世纪，殖民地一直发生反天主教的行动。然而，随着天主教徒涌入巴尔的摩，法律再次成立，以帮助防止宗教迫害。虽然在美国独立战争期间马里兰州没有发生重大战斗，但其民兵与其他大陆军一起帮助了这场战斗。巴尔的摩是殖民地的临时首都，而费城受到英国人的袭击威胁。此外，安纳波利斯的马里兰州议会大厦是批准正式结束战争的巴黎条约的地方。
George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore received a charter to found a colony east of the Potomac River from King Charles I. He was a declared Roman Catholic and wished to found a colony in the New World first for economic gain and soon after as a place where Catholics could live without fear of persecution. At that time, Catholics were being discriminated against. Roman Catholics were not allowed to hold public offices. As a further sign of anti-Catholic sentiment, the Great Fire of London that would occur in 1666 was blamed on Catholics. The new colony was named Maryland in honor of Henrietta Maria who was the queen consort of Charles I. George Calvert had previously been involved in a settlement in Newfoundland but finding the land inhospitable, hoped this new colony would be a financial success. Charles I, for his part, was to be given a share of the income that the new colony created. However, before he could settle the land, George Calvert passed away. The charter was then taken up by his son, Cecelius Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore. The first governor of the colony would be Cecelius Calvert’s brother, Leonard. The first group of about 140 settlers came in two ships, the Ark and the Dove. Interestingly, only 17 of the settlers were, in fact, Roman Catholic. The rest were protestant indentured servants. They arrived at St. Clement’s Island and founded St. Mary’s. They became heavily involved in the cultivation of tobacco which was their primary cash crop along with wheat and corn. Over the first fifteen years, the number of Protestant settlers increased and there was a fear that religious liberty would be taken away from the Catholic population. The Act of Toleration was passed in 1649 by Governor William Stone to protect those who believed in Jesus Christ. However, this was not the end of the problem as this act was repealed in 1654 when outright conflict occurred and the Puritans took control of the colony. Lord Baltimore actually lost his proprietary rights and it was some time before his family was able to regain control. Anti-Catholic actions occurred in the colony all the way until the 18th century. However, with an influx of Catholics into Baltimore, laws were once again created to help protect against religious persecution. While no major fighting occurred in Maryland during the American Revolution, its militia helped in the fight alongside the rest of the Continental Army. Baltimore was the temporary capital of the colonies while Philadelphia was threatened with attack by the British. In addition, the Maryland State House in Annapolis was where the Treaty of Paris that officially ended the war was ratified.