一个病态的骗子是一个长期讲述可能延伸或超过可信度极限的宏伟谎言的个体。虽然大多数人偶尔​​会谎言或至少歪曲事实,但病态的说谎者习惯性地这样做。病理性谎言是否应该被视为一种独特的心理障碍仍然在医学和学术界争论不休。大多数人偶尔​​会将“正常”谎言称为防御机制,以避免事实的后果(例如“当我找到它时就像是这样。”)当谎言被告知为朋友振作起来或饶恕另一个人的感受时(例如“你的发型看起来很棒!”),它可能被认为是促进积极接触的策略。相比之下,病态谎言没有社会价值,往往是古怪的。它们会对告诉他们的人产生毁灭性的负面影响。随着他们谎言的规模和频率的进展,病态的骗子往往失去了朋友和家人的信任。最终,他们的友谊和关系失败了。在极端情况下,病态撒谎可能导致法律问题,例如诽谤和欺诈。虽然经常互换使用,但“病态骗子”和“强迫性骗子”这两个词是不同的。病态和强迫性的骗子都养成说谎的习惯,但他们有不同的动机。病理性说谎者通常受到获得关注或同情的欲望的驱使。另一方面,强迫性撒谎者没有可识别的撒谎动机,无论当时的情况如何都会这样做。他们并不是在试图避免麻烦或获得某些优势。实际上,强迫性的骗子可能会觉得无力阻止自己说谎。虽然谎言 – 故意做出不真实陈述的行为 – 与人类一样古老,但病态说谎的行为最早是由德国精神病学家Anton Delbrueck在1891年的医学文献中记录的。在他的研究中,Delbrueck观察到许多谎言他的患者被告知是如此奇妙的过度,以至于这种疾病属于他称为“假性幻想”的新类别。在2005年的美国精神病学和法律学会期刊上,美国精神病学家Charles Dike博士进一步撰写在没有明确的精神错乱,虚弱或癫痫的情况下,可能是广泛而且非常复杂的,并且可能表现出一段时间甚至一生,这种病态定义为“伪造完全与任何可辨别的结果不相称”。

澳大利亚迪肯大学心理学Essay代写:病态欺骗者

A pathological liar is an individual who chronically tells grandiose lies that may stretch or exceed the limits of believability. While most people lie or at least bend the truth occasionally, pathological liars do so habitually. Whether or not pathological lying should be considered a distinct psychological disorder is still debated within the medical and academic community. Most people occasionally tell “normal” lies as a defense mechanism to avoid the consequences of the truth (e.g. “It was like that when I found it.”) When a lie is told to cheer up a friend or to spare another person’s feelings (e.g. “Your haircut looks great!”), it may be considered a strategy for facilitating positive contact. In contrast, pathological lies have no social value and are often outlandish. They can have devastatingly negative impacts on those who tell them. As the size and frequency of their lies progress, pathological liars often lose the trust of their friends and family. Eventually, their friendships and relationships fail. In extreme cases, pathological lying can lead to legal problems, such as libel and fraud. Though often used interchangeably, the terms “pathological liar” and “compulsive liar” are different. Pathological and compulsive liars both make a habit of telling lies, but they have different motives for doing so. Pathological liars are generally motivated by a desire to gain attention or sympathy. On the other hand, compulsive liars have no recognizable motive for lying and will do so no matter the situation at the time. They are not lying in an attempt to avoid trouble or gain some advantage over others. Actually, compulsive liars may feel powerless to stop themselves from telling lies. While lying—the act of intentionally making an untrue statement—is as old as the human race, the behavior of pathological lying was first documented in medical literature by German psychiatrist Anton Delbrueck in 1891. In his studies, Delbrueck observed that many of the lies his patients told were so fantastically over-the-top that the disorder belonged in a new category he called “pseudologia phantastica.” Writing in a 2005 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, American psychiatrist Dr. Charles Dike further defined pathological lying as “falsification entirely disproportionate to any discernible end in view, may be extensive and very complicated, and may manifest over a period of years or even a lifetime, in the absence of definite insanity, feeble-mindedness or epilepsy.”

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