婚姻是一种社会支持的工会,涉及两个或两个以上的个人,被认为是一种稳定的,持久的安排,至少部分是基于某种性关系。根据社会的不同,婚姻可能需要宗教和/或民事制裁,尽管有些夫妻可能仅仅因为共同生活一段时间而被视为已婚(普通法婚姻)。虽然婚姻仪式,规则和角色可能因社会而异,但婚姻被视为一种文化普遍性,这意味着它在所有文化中都是一种社会制度。婚姻有几个功能。在大多数社会中,它通过与母亲,父亲和长期亲属确定亲属关系,在社会上识别儿童。它还用于规范性行为,转移,保存或巩固财产,声望和权力,最重要的是,它是家庭制度的基础。在大多数社会中,婚姻被视为两个人之间永久的社会和法律合同以及基于配偶之间相互权利和义务的关系。婚姻通常基于浪漫关系,但情况并非总是如此。但无论如何,它通常表示两个人之间的性关系。然而,婚姻并不仅仅存在于已婚伴侣之间,而是在法律,经济,社会和精神/宗教方面被编纂为社会制度。通常情况下,婚姻制度始于求爱时期,最终要求结婚。接下来是婚礼,在此期间可以明确说明并同意相互的权利和责任。在许多地方,国家必须制裁婚姻才能使其被认为是有效和合法的,而且在许多文化中,宗教当局也必须这样做。在许多社会,包括西方世界和美国,婚姻被广泛认为是家庭的基础和基础。这就是为什么婚姻经常受到社会的欢迎,并立刻期望这对夫妇会生孩子,以及为什么在婚姻之外出生的孩子往往被称为非婚生的耻辱。由于婚姻受到法律,经济,社会和宗教机构的承认,婚姻的解除(废除或离婚)反过来必须涉及婚姻关系在所有这些领域的解体。婚姻有几个社会功能,在婚姻发生的社会和文化中很重要。最常见的是,婚姻决定了配偶在彼此的生活,家庭和整个社会中所扮演的角色。通常,这些角色涉及配偶之间的分工,这样每个人都负责家庭中必要的不同任务。美国社会学家塔尔科特·帕森斯就这一主题撰写了文章并概述了婚姻和家庭中的角色理论,其中妻子/母亲扮演照顾者的表现角色,照顾家庭中其他人的社交和情感需求,而丈夫/父亲负责赚钱以支持家庭的任务角色。为了与这种思想保持一致,婚姻通常起到决定配偶和夫妻的社会地位的作用,以及在夫妻之间建立权力等级的功能。丈夫/父亲在婚姻中拥有最大权力的社会被称为父权制。相反,母系社会是妻子/母亲拥有最多权力的社会。婚姻还有助于确定姓氏和家族血统的社会功能。在美国和西方世界,我们实行父系血统,这意味着姓氏遵循丈夫/父亲的姓氏。然而,许多文化,包括欧洲的一些文化,以及中美洲和拉丁美洲的许多文化,都遵循母系血统。今天,新婚夫妇通常会创建一个带连字符的姓氏,以保留双方的命名血统,并让孩子们承担父母双方的姓氏。

澳大利亚迪肯大学社会学论文代写:婚姻在社会学中的作用

Marriage is a socially supported union involving two or more individuals in what is regarded as a stable, enduring arrangement based at least in part on a sexual bond of some kind. Depending on the society, marriage may require religious and/or civil sanction, although some couples may come to be considered married simply by living together for a period of time (common law marriage). Though marriage ceremonies, rules, and roles may differ from one society to another, marriage is considered a cultural universal, which means that it is present as a social institution in all cultures. Marriage serves several functions. In most societies, it serves to socially identify children by defining kinship ties to a mother, father, and extended relatives. It also serves to regulate sexual behavior, to transfer, preserve, or consolidate property, prestige, and power, and most importantly, it is the basis for the institution of the family. In most societies, a marriage is considered a permanent social and legal contract and relationship between two people that is based on mutual rights and obligations among the spouses. A marriage is often based on a romantic relationship, though this is not always the case. But regardless, it typically signals a sexual relationship between two people. A marriage, however, does not simply exist between the married partners, but rather, is codified as a social institution in legal, economic, social, and spiritual/religious ways. Typically a the institution of marriage begins with a period of courtship that culminates in an invitation to marry. This is followed by the marriage ceremony, during which mutual rights and responsibilities may be specifically stated and agreed to. In many places the state must sanction a marriage in order for it to be considered valid and legal, and also in many cultures, a religious authority must do the same. In many societies, including the Western world and the United States, marriage is widely considered the basis of and foundation for family. This is why a marriage is often greeted socially with immediate expectations that the couple will produce children, and why children that are born outside of marriage are often branded with the stigma of illegitimacy. Because a marriage is recognized by law, by the economy, socially, and by religious institutions, a dissolution of marriage (annulment or divorce) must, in turn, involve a dissolution of the marriage relationship in all of these realms. Marriage has several social functions that are important within the societies and cultures where the marriage takes place. Most commonly, marriage dictates the roles that spouses play in each other’s lives, in the family, and in society at large. Typically these roles involve a division of labor between the spouses, such that each is responsible for different tasks that are necessary within the family. American sociologist Talcott Parsons wrote on this topic and outlined a theory of roles within a marriage and household, wherein wives/mothers play the expressive role of a caregiver who takes care of socialization and emotional needs of others in the family, while the husband/father is responsible for the task role of earning money to support the family. In keeping with this thinking, a marriage often serves the function of dictating the social status of the spouses and the couple, and of creating a hierarchy of power between the couple. Societies in which the husband/father holds the most power in the marriage are known as patriarchies. Conversely, matriarchal societies are those in which wives/mothers hold the most power. Marriage also serves the social function of determining family names and lines of familial descent. In the U.S. and much of the Western world, we practice patrilineal descent, meaning the family name follows that of the husband/father. However, many cultures, including some within Europe and many in Central and Latin America, follow matrilineal descent. Today, it is common for newly married couples to create a hyphenated family name that preserves the named lineage of both sides, and for children to bear the surnames of both parents.

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