第一次世界大战的爆发使美国和美国人摆脱了长达140多年的自我孤立主义时期。特别是外国出生的美国人对内部威胁的担忧迅速增长。威尔逊总统在1915年12月7日国会发表国情咨文时,也就是1917年美国参战前两年,强烈敦促国会通过“间谍法”。 “有美国公民,我脸红地承认,出生在其他旗帜下,但在我们慷慨的入籍法律下欢迎美国的充分自由和机会,他们将不忠的毒品倾注到我们国家生活的动脉中;他们试图将我们政府的权威和良好名誉置于蔑视之中,摧毁我们的工业,只要他们认为这些工业对他们的报复目的有效,并贬低我们的政治以利用外国阴谋。 “我敦促你尽早制定这样的法律,并感到这样做,我敦促你做任何事,而不是拯救国家的荣誉和自尊。这种充满激情,不忠和无政府状态的生物必须被粉碎。它们并不多,但它们是无限恶性的,我们的力量应该立即关闭它们。他们已经形成破坏财产的阴谋,他们已经进入反对政府中立的阴谋。他们试图撬开政府的每一项保密交易,以服务于我们自己的利益。有效处理这些事情是可能的。我不需要建议他们可以处理的条款。“尽管威尔逊的热情呼吁,国会行动缓慢。 1917年2月3日,美国正式与德国断交。虽然参议院于2月20日通过了“间谍法”的一个版本,但众议院决定在本届国会结束前不投票。在1917年4月2日对德国宣战之后不久,众议院和参议院都对威尔逊政府的间谍法案进行了辩论,其中包括严格审查新闻界。新闻审查的规定 – 第一修正案权利的明显中止 – 激起了国会的强烈反对,批评人士认为,它将赋予总统无限的权力来决定哪些信息“可能”对战争的努力有害。经过数周的辩论,参议院以39票对38票通过了最终法律中的审查规定。尽管取消了他的新闻审查条款,威尔逊总统于1917年6月15日将“间谍法”签署为法律。然而,在一份令人难忘的法案签署声明中,威尔逊坚称仍然需要对新闻审查进行审查。 “对新闻界进行审查的权力……对公共安全来说绝对必要,”他说。

澳大利亚迪肯大学论文代写:入籍法律

The outbreak of the First World War freed the United States and Americans from the self-isolation period of more than 140 years. In particular, foreign-born Americans are growing their concerns about internal threats. When President Wilson delivered his State of the Union address on December 7, 1915, two years before the United States entered the war in 1917, he strongly urged Congress to pass the “spy law.” “With American citizens, I blush to admit that I was born under other flags, but under our generous naturalization law, we welcome the full freedom and opportunity of the United States to pour unfaithful drugs into the arteries of our country’s life; they are trying to The authority and good reputation of our government are placed in contempt, destroying our industry, as long as they believe that these industries are effective against their revenge, and devalue our politics to exploit foreign conspiracy. “I urge you to enact such laws as soon as possible, And feel that doing this, I urge you to do anything, not to save the country’s honor and self-esteem. This passionate, unfaithful and anarchic creature must be shattered. They are not many, but they are infinitely vicious, and our forces should shut them down immediately. They have formed a conspiracy to destroy property, and they have entered a conspiracy against government neutrality. They try to open every secret transaction of the government to serve our own interests. It is possible to handle these things effectively. I don’t need to suggest terms that they can handle. “Despite Wilson’s enthusiasm, Congress is slow. On February 3, 1917, the United States officially broke diplomatic relations with Germany. Although the Senate passed a version of the “spy law” on February 20, the House of Representatives decided before the end of the current Congress. Not voting. Shortly after the war on Germany on April 2, 1917, both the House and the Senate debated the Wilson government’s espionage bill, including a strict review of the press. The provisions of the press review – the apparent suspension of the First Amendment rights – Aroused strong opposition from Congress, which critics believe will give the president unlimited power to decide what information is “possibly” harmful to the efforts of the war. After weeks of debate, the Senate passed the final law with 39 votes to 38 votes. In the review provisions, despite the cancellation of his censorship clause, President Wilson signed the “Spy Law” on June 15, 1917. However, in an unforgettable bill signing statement, Wilson insisted that A review of the press review is needed. “The power to review the press…is absolutely necessary for public safety,” he Say.

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